Filing Return of Income for NRI's

1. What are the basic provisions/requirements as to filing Return of Income (ROI) ?


ROI is a prescribed form through which the particulars of income earned by a person in a Financial year (FY) and taxes paid on such income are communicated to the Income-tax Department. ? The NRI is required to file the ROI in ITR – 2 and ITR- 3 in case he has income from business or profession. 

An NRI is liable to file ROI in India if:


· Taxable income in relevant FY (April 1 to March 31) exceeds Basic Exemption Limit of Rs. 2,50,000/- or Rs. 3,00,000/- as applicable or


· Where taxable income* is less than Basic Exemption Limit but the NRI, during the relevant previous year:

     i. has Short Term Capital Gain (STCG) on Equity Shares/ Units of Equity Oriented Mutual Funds/ Units of Business Trust; or

    ii. has any Long-Term Capital Gain (LTCG) chargeable to tax; or

  iii. has deposited an amount or aggregate of the amounts exceeding Rs. 1 crore in one or more current account maintained in India with a banking company or a co-operative bank; or

   iv. has incurred expenditure of an amount or aggregate of the amounts exceeding Rs. 2 lakhs for himself or any other person for travel to a foreign country from his banking account in India; or

    v. has incurred expenditure of an amount or aggregate of the amounts exceeding Rs. 1 lakh towards consumption of electricity in India; or

   vi. has total sales, turnover or gross receipts of the business exceeding Rs. 60 lakhs; or

  vii. has total gross receipt of profession exceeding Rs. 10 lakhs; or

viii. has total of tax deducted and collected of Rs. 25,000 or more; or

   ix. has aggregate deposit in one or more savings bank accounts held in India of Rs. 50 lakhs or more.


Categories iii to ix above have been introduced recently under the Act. The  NRI  need to check and if required then provide relevant details in the ROI.


*Taxable income for the purpose of filing ROI means gross total income before giving effect to exemption on re-investment of capital gains (refer FAQs on Chapter 16 – Taxation of Capital Gains on sale of immovable property and Chapter 18 - Capital Gain on sale of shares, Mutual funds, bonds and debentures) and Chapter VI-A deductions (refer FAQs on Chapter 21 - Deductions from Gross Total Income) i.e. donations, investment life insurance policy/ Unit Linked Insurance Policy/ Equity Linked Savings Scheme, Mediclaim expenses, etc.

2. Who is exempted from filing ROI in India?


Any NRI covered by the special provision of the Act, as given below, are exempted from filing ROI:


a)    If his, Gross Total Income during the relevant FY includes only:

a.      Investment income from a Specified Foreign Exchange Asset;


b.      Long-term capital gains from a Specified Foreign Exchange Asset




b)    tax on both incomes has been deducted at source as per provisions of the Act.


(Refer FAQs on Chapter 23 on Special Provisions relating to taxation of income of Non-resident Indians)

3. What is the due date applicable to NRI for filing ROI?


The due date of filing ROI for FY 2022-23 [Assessment Year (A.Y.) 2023-24] is explained by an example below:


Sr No.



Due date


Normal Due date

July 31 immediately succeeding the FY i.e. March 31, 2023

July 31, 2023


Anytime after the Normal due date

At any time on or before three months prior to end of relevant A.Y. i.e. March 31, 2024

December 31, 2023

(i.e. Extended due date)


Beyond the Extended due date (i.e. Updated ROI, if applicable)

At any time within twenty-four months from the end of relevant A.Y. i.e. March 31, 2024

Up to March 31,2026


If Application for condonation of delay for filing ROI is filed with Income Tax Department (ITD) and ITD condones the delay in filing ROI

By the due date prescribed in the approval order to condone delay (Note)

On or before date prescribed in approval order for Condonation of Delay



In case a notice is received from the ITD to file ROI

By the due date prescribed in the notice issued by ITD

On or before date prescribed in notice received.

Note: Condonation of delay application can be made to prescribed Income tax authorities anytime upto six years from the end of A.Y. (i.e. upto March 31, 2030 for AY 2023-24)

4. Whether a NRI can revise the ROI previously filed?


Yes, if an individual discovers any omission or wrong statement in ROI previously filed he/she may file a revised ROI anytime on or before three months prior to end of relevant AY or before the completion of assessment, whichever is earlier.




Revise filed ROI by


December 31, 2023

5. What is an “Updated” tax return?


· The Finance Act, 2022 has introduced a facility known as ‘Updated Return’. The new provision allows the taxpayers to update /file fresh ROI within two years.


· The facility is available for ROI pertaining to FY 2019-20 and onwards. Such Updated Return is required to be filed online on e-filing portal in Form ITR- U


· It provides an opportunity to disclose income which was not offered in the original ROI upon payment of additional taxes. Such voluntary disclosure in Updated Return may protect from levy of penalty, in case the tax officer discovers the mistake.


· However, one cannot file Updated Return in certain scenarios and some of the key scenarios are listed below:


-       Updated Return is a return of Loss

-       Updated Return is reducing the income tax liability from the return filed earlier

-       Updated Return results increase in refund


· Time limit for filing Updated Return: The Updated Return can be filed within 24 months (2 years) from end of relevant AY. Accordingly, the due date is explained below:



Due Date for filing Updated ROI

FY 2019-20 (AY 2020-21) i.e. March 31, 2021

March 31, 2023

FY 2020-21 (AY 2021-22) i.e. March 31, 2022

March 31, 2024

FY 2021-22 (AY 2022-23) i.e. March 31, 2023

March 31, 2025


· The assesse is required to pay additional tax and interest as under if he opts to file updated ROI:


Furnishes Updated ROI within

Amount of Additional Tax

Before 12 months from the end of AY

25% of assessed tax plus applicable interest

After 12 months but before 24 months from end of AY

50% of assessed tax plus applicable interest

6. How a NRI can claim refund of excess tax paid in any past year or years where NRI has not filed ROI within the prescribed time?


If  tax deducted or paid is in excess of the tax payable on the NRI’s income in any past year or  years and NRI has not filed ROI within the prescribed time, he/she may apply to the Income Tax Department to condone the delay in filing the ROI and obtain the approval. The refund shall be granted to him by the Tax Dept after completing the scrutiny/assessment.

COD application can be made only with good reasons for delay. For your information, lack of knowledge of Indian laws/Income tax Act is held by the Court in India as a valid reason for condonation of delay in filing ROI.


Following are some of criteria’s based on which application for condonation shall be accepted or rejected by the Tax Officer at his discretion:

· The claim is correct and genuine.

· The case is based on genuine hardship on merits.

· Income of the taxpayer is not assessable in the hands of any other person under any provisions of the Act

· The case is a refund case, arising  as a result of excess tax deducted and/or collected at source and/or excess advance tax payment and/or Self- Assessment tax as per provisions of the Act

Due Date: Condonation of Delay (COD) can be filed only upto six years from the end of the AY for which such application/ claim is made. For example, COD for FY 2016-17 can be filed till March 31, 2024.


If the NRI has failed to file the ROI, within the specified due date, for FY in which he has earned taxable income and was liable to pay the taxes, then he/she may make an application to Income-Tax Department that he would like to file the ROI. Further, the Income-tax department may issue the notice to the taxpayer in response to which the NRI can file its ROI.


Note that, processing the COD application as well as issuance of refund is at the sole discretion of the Income-Tax Department.

7. What are the consequences of filing Belated ROI?


If a NRI does not file his ROI within prescribed due dates, then he shall be liable for the following:


  i.   Specified losses such as Loss under head capital gains and Profits and gains of business or profession will not be allowed to be set off against the income in the subsequent years.


    ii.        Liable to pay 1% simple interest per month or part thereof on tax payable amount.


   iii.        Fees for filing ROI after due date is as under; 



ROI filed after due date

Income below exemption limit

No fees

Income above BEL upto Rs.5 lacs


Income above Rs.5 lacs



Fees for delay must be paid before filing ROI or the same shall be adjusted against the          refund amount (if any)


iv.    In case of willful delay in filing ROI, NRI may be subjected to prosecution. Provided no prosecution for failure to furnish ROI, if:

           · ROI is filed before three months prior to end of relevant AY or before the completion of assessment, whichever is earlier or

              · Tax payable by NRI on total income determined by the Tax Officer as reduced by Advance Tax paid, if any and TDS does not exceed
Rs. 10,000/-.

8. Whether foreign assets are required to be disclosed in ROI by a NRI?

Ans. Not required.

9. Whether husband and wife can file ROI jointly?


No, husband and wife cannot file ROI jointly in India as there are no such provisions under the Act.

10. What is an Assets and Liability (AL) Schedule? Who is required to report the value of Assets under AL Schedule in India?


AL is a Schedule of the ROI which is required to be mandatorily filled by Individuals and HUFs, if their total income exceeds Rs. 50,00,000/- in a FY. In the said schedule, NRIs are required to report their Indian assets only and corresponding liabilities at the end of the FY.

11. Which Assets and Liabilities are required to be reported under the AL Schedule?


The Asset and Liabilities required to be reported have been categorized as follows:


I. Assets:

A. Immovable Assets: 

  · Land

  · Building

B. Movable Assets:

  · Jewellery, Bullion etc.

  · Archaeological collections, drawings, painting, sculpture or any work of art 

  · Vehicles, yachts, boats and aircraft

  · Financial Assets

Ø  Bank (Including all deposits)
Ø  Shares and Securities (at cost)
Ø  Insurance Policies
Ø  Loans and Advances Given
Ø  Cash in hand

II. Liability in relation to the above Assets (both Immovable and Movable)

12. What are the significant changes in reporting requirement in ROI Forms applicable to NRIs?


As per the new changes in ROI forms, the following additional details/information are required to be reported by NRIs, which are as under:


i.   NRIs have to provide their number of days stay in India for previous 5 years (i.e. Year for which ROI is filed plus 4 years prior to the year for which ROI is filed).

ii.  Details of shares held in unlisted companies in India - (i.e. shares not listed on a recognized stock exchange in India) i.e. Name of the company, PAN, number of shares held, Purchase value, purchase price per share, shares transferred during the year, closing balance

iii. Details of company where NRI is a director i.e. Name of the company, PAN, whether the shares are listed or not, DIN, Type of company.

iv. NRIs have to provide Tax Identification number (TIN) of their country of residence.

v.  Separate Schedules have been notified to report transactions taxable under Section 112A (tax on long-term capital gains on sale of equity share of company, unit of an equity oriented fund or a unit of business trust) and Section 115AD (Tax on income of FIIs from securities or capital gains arising from their transfer).

vi.  Zip codes are now required to be provided in Addresses of various Foreign Assets of Schedule FA Reporting.

vii. Disclosure of house buyers, details in case you have sold a property i.e. Name of buyer, PAN/ Aadhar Number (mandatory, if the tax is deducted under section 194-IA or is quoted by buyer in the documents), Percentage of share of each buyers, amount and address of property along with PIN code.

viii. Select (Yes/No) of opting/not opting for new tax regime under sec 115BAC

ix.  Reporting of interest accrued on Provident Fund to which no exemption is available.

x.  Disclosure of income not chargeable to tax as per DTAA is required under Exempt Income Schedule

13. What is 26AS, AIS and TIS and how these documents are helpful in filing ROI?


·       Form 26AS: Form 26AS is a consolidated annual tax statement that shows the details of Amount paid/ credited and tax deducted at source and tax collected at source thereon. Further, high value transactions are also reflected and reported in Form 26AS

·       Annual Information Statement (AIS): The AIS is a detailed summary of a taxpayer's information which is given in Form 26AS. In addition to the TDS/TCS details, AIS will also show interest, dividend, stock market transactions, mutual fund transactions etc. It also provides details of advance tax and self-assessment tax paid by the taxpayer.

·    Taxpayer Information Summary (TIS): TIS is a category wise taxpayer summary of information reported in AIS.


AIS-TIS contains information about taxpayers’ incomes, financial transactions, tax details etc.


Further it is advisable to verify the above documents while filing the ROI and seek professional advice for corrections in case of any discrepancies between the said documents and information available with taxpayer otherwise your tax assessment shall be completed on the basis of the records available with the Tax Dept and you may receive notice of demand for tax payable and or you may be granted less refund than what you claimed.

14. What is the process of compliance post filing ROI?


After filing ROI on the Income-tax e-filing portal, the taxpayer needs to verify his/her Income Tax Returns to complete the ROI filing process. Without verification within the stipulated time, an ROI is treated as not filed and it will attract all the consequences of not filing ROI under the Act.


Due date to verify ROI:

Within 30 days from the date of filing the return of income


Manner of verifying ROI:

a.    Manually signing ITR-V and couriering it to CPC, Bangalore

b.    E-Verify online using:

·         OTP on mobile number registered with Aadhaar, or

·         EVC generated through your pre-validated bank account, or

·         EVC generated through your pre-validated demat account, or

·         EVC through ATM (offline method), or

·         Net Banking, or

·         Digital Signature Certificate (DSC).

15. What is the Time limit to process ROI?


Time limit to process ROI is 9 months from the end of the FY in which return is filed. The same is explained for FY 2022-23 by an example as under:


Sr No.

Return Filed by

Due Date to process ROI


Normal due date i.e. July 31, 2023

December 31, 2023


Beyond the Normal due date i.e. December 31, 2023

December 31, 2024


Beyond the Extended due date (i.e. Updated ROI) i.e. March 31, 2026

December 31, 2026


On completion of processing of ROI, taxpayer shall receive intimation order along with details of the refund of taxes granted or demand for tax payable.

16. What are benefits for filing ROI voluntarily?


Ø  Claim refund of excess income tax paid:


TDS for NRIs is deducted at prescribed rates i.e. 10% to 30.9%. However, actual tax liability is generally lower for the following reasons:


a. Income (other than capital gains) up to the basic exemption limit of Rs. 2,50,000/- or Rs. 3,00,000/- as applicable, is not liable to tax. However, TDS is deducted at 30.9% in most cases.


b. Income earned may not be liable to tax but the payer of Income deducts the tax:


               i. Capital losses can be set off against capital gains but TDS is deducted from capital gains prior to set-off of losses.


              ii. TDS rate on NRO A/c is 30.9% but rate as per Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAA), may be lower.


            iii. Reinvestments of capital gains may be exempt but tax may be deducted by payer (such as banks, brokers, etc.)


In view of above, NRI is advised to claim refund for excess TDS deducted by filing ROI in the relevant FY. Further, NRI is entitled to receive interest @ 6 % p.a. on any tax refund.


Ø  Set-off Benefits:


a.    NRI may incur short-term or long-term capital loss on sale of investments. Such loss can be carry forwarded and set off against long-term capital gains from sale of investments in subsequent FY or FY’s provided ROI is filed within prescribed time in such FY in which he has incurred loss. Hence, the NRI should file ROI declaring losses in such a situation.


b.    Loss under the head ‘Income from House Property’ can now be set-off against income under any other head only to the extent of Rs. 2,00,000/- per FY . Earlier, there was no such limit on set-off of loss. Balance unabsorbed loss can be carried forward for set off in subsequent FY and the loss carried forward in subsequent years can be set off only against income from house property.


Ø  Avoid non-filing notices from the Income-tax Department.

Ø  Records/ Documentation:


The updated tax information/records help a NRI:


a.    To comply with procedural documentation for repatriation of income and assets from NRO a/c to NRE a/c / Overseas bank a/c.


b. To have ready records as and when he/she returns to India or have to submit the said documents in his / her country of residence.


Updated 11/2023